Diabetes – causes and treatment

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sugar and glucometerDiabetes is the most frequent endocrine disorder and the biggest health issue worldwide. According to International Diabetes Federation, around 400 million people have this health problem. The number may double by 2040 unless this matter is tackled with more caution and awareness.

Types of diabetes

Type II diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance – decreased sensitivity of insulin receptors, followed by a relative insulin deficiency. 90 percent of all patients suffer from this type. Women are more susceptible to it, especially after the age of 40, while the biggest risk of developing it starts between 65 – 74 years of age. Still, there has been an increase in the number of young people with diabetes, immediately followed by those suffering from obesity.

The symptoms of Type II diabetes include frequent and copious urination, amplified thirst, constant hunger and paresthesia (tingling sensations). However, it is only in the later stages that the symptoms may become apparent. Hence, people usually discover they are suffering from this condition after a routine medical check-up. Sometimes, patients can be unaware of this condition until other organs reach near failure – heart, lungs, kidneys, or eyes.

Proper diet is the base for treating this severe health issue. It has to be tailored individually and its aim is to reduce the body mass, stabilize the presence of sugar in the blood and maintain blood pressure. Oral anti-diabetics are the type of medications used in the treatment and these include metformin, glimepiride, Acarbose, or nateglinide.

Type I diabetes is usually referred to as “juvenile diabetes” because it may develop in early childhood. It is frequent with people under 30, especially during puberty (between the ages of 11 – 13). It is connected to the increased secretion of the growth and sex hormones in this period. This type is less frequent than Type II and only 5-10 percent of all patients suffer from it. This type of diabetes is insulin-dependent and has a genetic foundation. Furthermore, it is considered to be an autoimmune illness because the system produces antibodies which attack the pancreas cells. Hence, the insulin synthesis can’t take place and insulin deficiency is inevitable.

The treatment of Type I diabetes includes insulin shots which are absolutely necessary. This does not exclude other methods like special diet, physical activity, and stress-free lifestyle. Prior to starting the insulin therapy, patients have to be trained to be able to perform the procedure of giving shots. Every person is prescribed an individual dose depending on their condition.

The risk of developing any type of diabetes can be decreased drastically if people start taking the lack of physical activity and unhealthy habits seriously. Research has shown that the most effective prevention is the combination of proper nutrition and exercise.

Science has been making momentous breakthroughs in this field. Although there has not been an official agreement, some tests have made room for investigating the potential effect of artificial insulin sensors. Possible advancement in this field would mean a significant decrease in the number of patients suffering from diabetes.